For the study, Robins and colleagues from the Division of Clinical Research Center in Hutchinson sequenced more than five million of T-cell receptor DNA strands from each of seven healthy donors. After comparing these sequences, they found two main results.Robins and colleagues developed a new way to sequence millions of T cell receptors, an essential component of the adaptive immune system, simultaneously from a single sample. When comparing the profiles of the immune system to different people, researchers were surprised that we are all more similar than previously thought.
According to the authors, the accuracy of the classification demonstrates the potential of this technique as a fast and not subjective to distinguish the sex of birds, even if their physical appearance or characteristics are not yet developed.
We found that two people can share the tens of thousands of exactly the same T-cell receptor This is contrary to previous dogma that every person has a distinct set of T cell receptors with little or no overlap between the people, said Robins, Ph.D., biologist and the calculation of an alternate member of the Division of Public Health Sciences Center in Hutchinson.
First, all sequences of T cell receptors used by the human immune system is not a random section of all the possibilities, but a small subset of properties consistent that scientists subsequently identified.
The results also show a new meaning for potential cancer biomarkers to detect the disease early, when it is still curable. For many cancers, such as there is no convincing evidence that the immune response of T cells is induced. The immune system works through a process called clonal expansion.
The results have the potential diagnostic and therapeutic for autoimmune diseases and cancer.
The National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases funded the research.
All the adaptive immune system is much closer than expected, said Robins.
In fact, the immune system is an amplifier. So a very small tumor has the potential to induce an immune response amplified, said Robins. The results of this study suggest that many patients may have a similar response to the same type of cancer. Therefore, the detection of these responses could be like an early diagnosis for some types of cancer.
Second, pairwise comparisons of T cell receptors in the seven donors have shown that tens of thousands of identical receptors are shared by each pair, even in people of different ethnicities.
This finding has important implications for the development of new ways to detect, diagnose and treat diseases of the immune system, according to Harlan Robins, Ph.D., corresponding author of a detailed document of Medicine Research Translational Science.
When it comes to the mechanics of the human immune system, we are all more similar than previously thought, according to new research by scientists at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.