The respiratory tract is a major entry site for various viral and bacterial pathogens. However, there are some vaccines authorized to provide optimal protection against them due to poor immune response to muscosal surfaces such as the nasal passage.Nasal vaccines could have a number of advantages over other vaccines should be injected. “Vaccination with a nasal spray is a non-invasive procedure is easier than administering vaccines by injection. In addition, our results have shown that antibodies induced by intranasal vaccination are effective not only to prevent infection but may also protect the so on pulmonary therapy, after exposure to pathogens, “says Dr. Metzger.” In the event of a bioterrorism threat or pandemic influenza, it is significant. “The next step is to conduct clinical trials to determine whether IL- 12, with intranasal vaccines are effective in the human population.
Professor Metzger of Albany Medical College, New York, explains the significance of the results. “Infectious agents still represent about 25% of deaths worldwide and the leading causes of death are acute respiratory infections. However, it is difficult to induce immunity at the site and vaccines are only partially protective standards “he said.” Intranasal Vaccination solve this problem, inducing immunity in the lung passage. This prevents the initial infection and systemic complications. ” Until now, nasal vaccination has only resulted in an immune response sufficient to very specific types of vaccine. “Now we have proof that this method might work for a wide range of vaccines in which IL-12 is included in the formulation,” said Professor Metzger.
Nasal vaccines that effectively protect against, and even bioterrorism agents such as Yersinia pestis causes plague, could soon be a possibility, according to a study presented at the Society for General Microbiology’s spring conference in Harrogate. Professor Dennis Metzger describes how including a natural immune chemical with standard vaccines may increase their protective effect when delivered through the nose.
The combination vaccine standard for respiratory pathogens with the immune chemical called interleukin-12 (IL-12) and deliver them intranasally to mice has been shown to induce high levels of protection. Vaccines against various respiratory pathogens were tested, including viruses, bacteria and Yersinia pestis pneumococcus – Category A bioterrorism. IL-12 is a natural immune chemical, known as a cytokine. It ‘a potent stimulator of the immune response through its interactions with other immune chemicals and white blood cells that produce them.